collection – Collection level operations

Collection level utilities for Mongo.

pymongo.ASCENDING = 1

Ascending sort order.

pymongo.DESCENDING = -1

Descending sort order.

pymongo.GEO2D = '2d'

Index specifier for a 2-dimensional geospatial index.

pymongo.GEOHAYSTACK = 'geoHaystack'

Index specifier for a 2-dimensional haystack index.

New in version 2.1.

pymongo.GEOSPHERE = '2dsphere'

Index specifier for a spherical geospatial index.

New in version 2.5.

pymongo.HASHED = 'hashed'

Index specifier for a hashed index.

New in version 2.5.

pymongo.TEXT = 'text'

Index specifier for a text index.

New in version 2.7.1.

class pymongo.collection.ReturnDocument

An enum used with find_one_and_replace() and find_one_and_update().

BEFORE

Return the original document before it was updated/replaced, or None if no document matches the query.

AFTER

Return the updated/replaced or inserted document.

class pymongo.collection.Collection(database, name, create=False, **kwargs)

Get / create a Mongo collection.

Raises TypeError if name is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3). Raises InvalidName if name is not a valid collection name. Any additional keyword arguments will be used as options passed to the create command. See create_collection() for valid options.

If create is True, collation is specified, or any additional keyword arguments are present, a create command will be sent, using session if specified. Otherwise, a create command will not be sent and the collection will be created implicitly on first use. The optional session argument is only used for the create command, it is not associated with the collection afterward.

Parameters:
  • database: the database to get a collection from
  • name: the name of the collection to get
  • create (optional): if True, force collection creation even without options being set
  • codec_options (optional): An instance of CodecOptions. If None (the default) database.codec_options is used.
  • read_preference (optional): The read preference to use. If None (the default) database.read_preference is used.
  • write_concern (optional): An instance of WriteConcern. If None (the default) database.write_concern is used.
  • read_concern (optional): An instance of ReadConcern. If None (the default) database.read_concern is used.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. If a collation is provided, it will be passed to the create collection command. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession that is used with the create collection command
  • **kwargs (optional): additional keyword arguments will be passed as options for the create collection command

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Support the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Added the read_concern option.

Changed in version 3.0: Added the codec_options, read_preference, and write_concern options. Removed the uuid_subtype attribute. Collection no longer returns an instance of Collection for attribute names with leading underscores. You must use dict-style lookups instead::

collection[‘__my_collection__’]

Not:

collection.__my_collection__

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated argument: options

New in version 2.1: uuid_subtype attribute

See also

The MongoDB documentation on

collections

c[name] || c.name

Get the name sub-collection of Collection c.

Raises InvalidName if an invalid collection name is used.

full_name

The full name of this Collection.

The full name is of the form database_name.collection_name.

name

The name of this Collection.

database

The Database that this Collection is a part of.

codec_options

Read only access to the CodecOptions of this instance.

read_preference

Read only access to the read preference of this instance.

Changed in version 3.0: The read_preference attribute is now read only.

write_concern

Read only access to the WriteConcern of this instance.

Changed in version 3.0: The write_concern attribute is now read only.

read_concern

Read only access to the ReadConcern of this instance.

New in version 3.2.

with_options(codec_options=None, read_preference=None, write_concern=None, read_concern=None)

Get a clone of this collection changing the specified settings.

>>> coll1.read_preference
Primary()
>>> from pymongo import ReadPreference
>>> coll2 = coll1.with_options(read_preference=ReadPreference.SECONDARY)
>>> coll1.read_preference
Primary()
>>> coll2.read_preference
Secondary(tag_sets=None)
Parameters:
bulk_write(requests, ordered=True, bypass_document_validation=False, session=None)

Send a batch of write operations to the server.

Requests are passed as a list of write operation instances ( InsertOne, UpdateOne, UpdateMany, ReplaceOne, DeleteOne, or DeleteMany).

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634ef')}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634f0')}
>>> # DeleteMany, UpdateOne, and UpdateMany are also available.
...
>>> from pymongo import InsertOne, DeleteOne, ReplaceOne
>>> requests = [InsertOne({'y': 1}), DeleteOne({'x': 1}),
...             ReplaceOne({'w': 1}, {'z': 1}, upsert=True)]
>>> result = db.test.bulk_write(requests)
>>> result.inserted_count
1
>>> result.deleted_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
0
>>> result.upserted_ids
{2: ObjectId('54f62ee28891e756a6e1abd5')}
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634f0')}
{u'y': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62ee2fba5226811f634f1')}
{u'z': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62ee28891e756a6e1abd5')}
Parameters:
  • requests: A list of write operations (see examples above).
  • ordered (optional): If True (the default) requests will be performed on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining operations are aborted. If False requests will be performed on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel, and all operations will be attempted.
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

An instance of BulkWriteResult.

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

insert_one(document, bypass_document_validation=False, session=None)

Insert a single document.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
0
>>> result = db.test.insert_one({'x': 1})
>>> result.inserted_id
ObjectId('54f112defba522406c9cc208')
>>> db.test.find_one({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f112defba522406c9cc208')}
Parameters:
  • document: The document to insert. Must be a mutable mapping type. If the document does not have an _id field one will be added automatically.
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

insert_many(documents, ordered=True, bypass_document_validation=False, session=None)

Insert an iterable of documents.

>>> db.test.count()
0
>>> result = db.test.insert_many([{'x': i} for i in range(2)])
>>> result.inserted_ids
[ObjectId('54f113fffba522406c9cc20e'), ObjectId('54f113fffba522406c9cc20f')]
>>> db.test.count()
2
Parameters:
  • documents: A iterable of documents to insert.
  • ordered (optional): If True (the default) documents will be inserted on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining inserts are aborted. If False, documents will be inserted on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel, and all document inserts will be attempted.
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

An instance of InsertManyResult.

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

replace_one(filter, replacement, upsert=False, bypass_document_validation=False, collation=None, session=None)

Replace a single document matching the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4c5befba5220aa4d6dee7')}
>>> result = db.test.replace_one({'x': 1}, {'y': 1})
>>> result.matched_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
1
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'y': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4c5befba5220aa4d6dee7')}

The upsert option can be used to insert a new document if a matching document does not exist.

>>> result = db.test.replace_one({'x': 1}, {'x': 1}, True)
>>> result.matched_count
0
>>> result.modified_count
0
>>> result.upserted_id
ObjectId('54f11e5c8891e756a6e1abd4')
>>> db.test.find_one({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f11e5c8891e756a6e1abd4')}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to replace.
  • replacement: The new document.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

update_one(filter, update, upsert=False, bypass_document_validation=False, collation=None, array_filters=None, session=None)

Update a single document matching the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> result = db.test.update_one({'x': 1}, {'$inc': {'x': 3}})
>>> result.matched_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
1
>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to update.
  • update: The modifications to apply.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • array_filters (optional): A list of filters specifying which array elements an update should apply. Requires MongoDB 3.6+.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added the array_filters and session parameters.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

update_many(filter, update, upsert=False, array_filters=None, bypass_document_validation=False, collation=None, session=None)

Update one or more documents that match the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> result = db.test.update_many({'x': 1}, {'$inc': {'x': 3}})
>>> result.matched_count
3
>>> result.modified_count
3
>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the documents to update.
  • update: The modifications to apply.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
  • bypass_document_validation (optional): If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • array_filters (optional): A list of filters specifying which array elements an update should apply. Requires MongoDB 3.6+.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.6: Added array_filters and session parameters.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 3.0.

delete_one(filter, collation=None, session=None)

Delete a single document matching the filter.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
3
>>> result = db.test.delete_one({'x': 1})
>>> result.deleted_count
1
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
2
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to delete.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

New in version 3.0.

delete_many(filter, collation=None, session=None)

Delete one or more documents matching the filter.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
3
>>> result = db.test.delete_many({'x': 1})
>>> result.deleted_count
3
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
0
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the documents to delete.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

New in version 3.0.

aggregate(pipeline, session=None, **kwargs)

Perform an aggregation using the aggregation framework on this collection.

All optional aggregate command parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include, but are not limited to:

  • allowDiskUse (bool): Enables writing to temporary files. When set to True, aggregation stages can write data to the _tmp subdirectory of the –dbpath directory. The default is False.
  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the operation to run in milliseconds.
  • batchSize (int): The maximum number of documents to return per batch. Ignored if the connected mongod or mongos does not support returning aggregate results using a cursor, or useCursor is False.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • useCursor (bool): Deprecated. Will be removed in PyMongo 4.0.

The aggregate() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection. Please note that using the $out pipeline stage requires a read preference of PRIMARY (the default). The server will raise an error if the $out pipeline stage is used with any other read preference.

Note

This method does not support the ‘explain’ option. Please use command() instead. An example is included in the Aggregation Framework documentation.

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Parameters:
  • pipeline: a list of aggregation pipeline stages
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.
Returns:

A CommandCursor over the result set.

Changed in version 3.6: Added the session parameter. Added the maxAwaitTimeMS option. Deprecated the useCursor option.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4. Support the collation option.

Changed in version 3.0: The aggregate() method always returns a CommandCursor. The pipeline argument must be a list.

Changed in version 2.7: When the cursor option is used, return CommandCursor instead of Cursor.

Changed in version 2.6: Added cursor support.

New in version 2.3.

aggregate_raw_batches(pipeline, **kwargs)

Perform an aggregation and retrieve batches of raw BSON.

Similar to the aggregate() method but returns a RawBatchCursor.

This example demonstrates how to work with raw batches, but in practice raw batches should be passed to an external library that can decode BSON into another data type, rather than used with PyMongo’s bson module.

>>> import bson
>>> cursor = db.test.aggregate_raw_batches([
...     {'$project': {'x': {'$multiply': [2, '$x']}}}])
>>> for batch in cursor:
...     print(bson.decode_all(batch))

Note

aggregate_raw_batches does not support sessions.

New in version 3.6.

watch(pipeline=None, full_document='default', resume_after=None, max_await_time_ms=None, batch_size=None, collation=None, session=None)

Watch changes on this collection.

Performs an aggregation with an implicit initial $changeStream stage and returns a ChangeStream cursor which iterates over changes on this collection. Introduced in MongoDB 3.6.

for change in db.collection.watch():
    print(change)

The ChangeStream iterable blocks until the next change document is returned or an error is raised. If the next() method encounters a network error when retrieving a batch from the server, it will automatically attempt to recreate the cursor such that no change events are missed. Any error encountered during the resume attempt indicates there may be an outage and will be raised.

try:
    for insert_change in db.collection.watch(
            [{'$match': {'operationType': 'insert'}}]):
        print(insert_change)
except pymongo.errors.PyMongoError:
    # The ChangeStream encountered an unrecoverable error or the
    # resume attempt failed to recreate the cursor.
    log.error('...')

For a precise description of the resume process see the change streams specification.

Note

Using this helper method is preferred to directly calling aggregate() with a $changeStream stage, for the purpose of supporting resumability.

Warning

This Collection’s read_concern must be ReadConcern("majority") in order to use the $changeStream stage.

Parameters:
  • pipeline (optional): A list of aggregation pipeline stages to append to an initial $changeStream stage. Not all pipeline stages are valid after a $changeStream stage, see the MongoDB documentation on change streams for the supported stages.
  • full_document (optional): The fullDocument to pass as an option to the $changeStream stage. Allowed values: ‘default’, ‘updateLookup’. Defaults to ‘default’. When set to ‘updateLookup’, the change notification for partial updates will include both a delta describing the changes to the document, as well as a copy of the entire document that was changed from some time after the change occurred.
  • resume_after (optional): The logical starting point for this change stream.
  • max_await_time_ms (optional): The maximum time in milliseconds for the server to wait for changes before responding to a getMore operation.
  • batch_size (optional): The maximum number of documents to return per batch.
  • collation (optional): The Collation to use for the aggregation.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
Returns:

A ChangeStream cursor.

New in version 3.6.

See also

The MongoDB documentation on

changeStreams

find(filter=None, projection=None, skip=0, limit=0, no_cursor_timeout=False, cursor_type=CursorType.NON_TAILABLE, sort=None, allow_partial_results=False, oplog_replay=False, modifiers=None, batch_size=0, manipulate=True, collation=None, hint=None, max_scan=None, max_time_ms=None, max=None, min=None, return_key=False, show_record_id=False, snapshot=False, comment=None, session=None)

Query the database.

The filter argument is a prototype document that all results must match. For example:

>>> db.test.find({"hello": "world"})

only matches documents that have a key “hello” with value “world”. Matches can have other keys in addition to “hello”. The projection argument is used to specify a subset of fields that should be included in the result documents. By limiting results to a certain subset of fields you can cut down on network traffic and decoding time.

Raises TypeError if any of the arguments are of improper type. Returns an instance of Cursor corresponding to this query.

The find() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): a SON object specifying elements which must be present for a document to be included in the result set
  • projection (optional): a list of field names that should be returned in the result set or a dict specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a dict to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • skip (optional): the number of documents to omit (from the start of the result set) when returning the results
  • limit (optional): the maximum number of results to return
  • no_cursor_timeout (optional): if False (the default), any returned cursor is closed by the server after 10 minutes of inactivity. If set to True, the returned cursor will never time out on the server. Care should be taken to ensure that cursors with no_cursor_timeout turned on are properly closed.
  • cursor_type (optional): the type of cursor to return. The valid options are defined by CursorType:
    • NON_TAILABLE - the result of this find call will return a standard cursor over the result set.
    • TAILABLE - the result of this find call will be a tailable cursor - tailable cursors are only for use with capped collections. They are not closed when the last data is retrieved but are kept open and the cursor location marks the final document position. If more data is received iteration of the cursor will continue from the last document received. For details, see the tailable cursor documentation.
    • TAILABLE_AWAIT - the result of this find call will be a tailable cursor with the await flag set. The server will wait for a few seconds after returning the full result set so that it can capture and return additional data added during the query.
    • EXHAUST - the result of this find call will be an exhaust cursor. MongoDB will stream batched results to the client without waiting for the client to request each batch, reducing latency. See notes on compatibility below.
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for this query. See sort() for details.
  • allow_partial_results (optional): if True, mongos will return partial results if some shards are down instead of returning an error.
  • oplog_replay (optional): If True, set the oplogReplay query flag.
  • batch_size (optional): Limits the number of documents returned in a single batch.
  • manipulate (optional): DEPRECATED - If True (the default), apply any outgoing SON manipulators before returning.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.
  • return_key (optional): If True, return only the index keys in each document.
  • show_record_id (optional): If True, adds a field $recordId in each document with the storage engine’s internal record identifier.
  • snapshot (optional): If True, prevents the cursor from returning a document more than once because of an intervening write operation.
  • hint (optional): An index, in the same format as passed to create_index() (e.g. [('field', ASCENDING)]). Pass this as an alternative to calling hint() on the cursor to tell Mongo the proper index to use for the query.
  • max_time_ms (optional): Specifies a time limit for a query operation. If the specified time is exceeded, the operation will be aborted and ExecutionTimeout is raised. Pass this as an alternative to calling max_time_ms() on the cursor.
  • max_scan (optional): The maximum number of documents to scan. Pass this as an alternative to calling max_scan() on the cursor.
  • min (optional): A list of field, limit pairs specifying the inclusive lower bound for all keys of a specific index in order. Pass this as an alternative to calling min() on the cursor.
  • max (optional): A list of field, limit pairs specifying the exclusive upper bound for all keys of a specific index in order. Pass this as an alternative to calling max() on the cursor.
  • comment (optional): A string or document. Pass this as an alternative to calling comment() on the cursor.
  • modifiers (optional): DEPRECATED - A dict specifying additional MongoDB query modifiers. Use the keyword arguments listed above instead.

Note

There are a number of caveats to using EXHAUST as cursor_type:

  • The limit option can not be used with an exhaust cursor.
  • Exhaust cursors are not supported by mongos and can not be used with a sharded cluster.
  • A Cursor instance created with the EXHAUST cursor_type requires an exclusive socket connection to MongoDB. If the Cursor is discarded without being completely iterated the underlying socket connection will be closed and discarded without being returned to the connection pool.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.5: Added the options return_key, show_record_id, snapshot, hint, max_time_ms, max_scan, min, max, and comment. Deprecated the option modifiers.

Changed in version 3.4: Support the collation option.

Changed in version 3.0: Changed the parameter names spec, fields, timeout, and partial to filter, projection, no_cursor_timeout, and allow_partial_results respectively. Added the cursor_type, oplog_replay, and modifiers options. Removed the network_timeout, read_preference, tag_sets, secondary_acceptable_latency_ms, max_scan, snapshot, tailable, await_data, exhaust, as_class, and slave_okay parameters. Removed compile_re option: PyMongo now always represents BSON regular expressions as Regex objects. Use try_compile() to attempt to convert from a BSON regular expression to a Python regular expression object. Soft deprecated the manipulate option.

Changed in version 2.7: Added compile_re option. If set to False, PyMongo represented BSON regular expressions as Regex objects instead of attempting to compile BSON regular expressions as Python native regular expressions, thus preventing errors for some incompatible patterns, see PYTHON-500.

New in version 2.3: The tag_sets and secondary_acceptable_latency_ms parameters.

See also

The MongoDB documentation on

find

find_raw_batches(filter=None, projection=None, skip=0, limit=0, no_cursor_timeout=False, cursor_type=CursorType.NON_TAILABLE, sort=None, allow_partial_results=False, oplog_replay=False, modifiers=None, batch_size=0, manipulate=True, collation=None, hint=None, max_scan=None, max_time_ms=None, max=None, min=None, return_key=False, show_record_id=False, snapshot=False, comment=None)

Query the database and retrieve batches of raw BSON.

Similar to the find() method but returns a RawBatchCursor.

This example demonstrates how to work with raw batches, but in practice raw batches should be passed to an external library that can decode BSON into another data type, rather than used with PyMongo’s bson module.

>>> import bson
>>> cursor = db.test.find_raw_batches()
>>> for batch in cursor:
...     print(bson.decode_all(batch))

Note

find_raw_batches does not support sessions.

New in version 3.6.

find_one(filter=None, *args, **kwargs)

Get a single document from the database.

All arguments to find() are also valid arguments for find_one(), although any limit argument will be ignored. Returns a single document, or None if no matching document is found.

The find_one() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): a dictionary specifying the query to be performed OR any other type to be used as the value for a query for "_id".

  • *args (optional): any additional positional arguments are the same as the arguments to find().

  • **kwargs (optional): any additional keyword arguments are the same as the arguments to find().

    >>> collection.find_one(max_time_ms=100)
    
find_one_and_delete(filter, projection=None, sort=None, session=None, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and deletes it, returning the document.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
2
>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4e12bfba5220aa4d6dee8')}
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
1

If multiple documents match filter, a sort can be applied.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({'x': 1}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete(
...     {'x': 1}, sort=[('_id', pymongo.DESCENDING)])
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}

The projection option can be used to limit the fields returned.

>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete({'x': 1}, projection={'_id': False})
{u'x': 1}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to delete.
  • projection (optional): a list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a mapping to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is deleted.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.2: Respects write concern.

Warning

Starting in PyMongo 3.2, this command uses the WriteConcern of this Collection when connected to MongoDB >= 3.2. Note that using an elevated write concern with this command may be slower compared to using the default write concern.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

New in version 3.0.

find_one_and_replace(filter, replacement, projection=None, sort=None, return_document=ReturnDocument.BEFORE, session=None, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and replaces it, returning either the original or the replaced document.

The find_one_and_replace() method differs from find_one_and_update() by replacing the document matched by filter, rather than modifying the existing document.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_replace({'x': 1}, {'y': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'y': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to replace.
  • replacement: The replacement document.
  • projection (optional): A list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a mapping to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is replaced.
  • upsert (optional): When True, inserts a new document if no document matches the query. Defaults to False.
  • return_document: If ReturnDocument.BEFORE (the default), returns the original document before it was replaced, or None if no document matches. If ReturnDocument.AFTER, returns the replaced or inserted document.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Respects write concern.

Warning

Starting in PyMongo 3.2, this command uses the WriteConcern of this Collection when connected to MongoDB >= 3.2. Note that using an elevated write concern with this command may be slower compared to using the default write concern.

New in version 3.0.

find_one_and_update(filter, update, projection=None, sort=None, return_document=ReturnDocument.BEFORE, array_filters=None, session=None, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and updates it, returning either the original or the updated document.

>>> db.test.find_one_and_update(
...    {'_id': 665}, {'$inc': {'count': 1}, '$set': {'done': True}})
{u'_id': 665, u'done': False, u'count': 25}}

By default find_one_and_update() returns the original version of the document before the update was applied. To return the updated version of the document instead, use the return_document option.

>>> from pymongo import ReturnDocument
>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'_id': u'userid', u'seq': 1}

You can limit the fields returned with the projection option.

>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     projection={'seq': True, '_id': False},
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'seq': 2}

The upsert option can be used to create the document if it doesn’t already exist.

>>> db.example.delete_many({}).deleted_count
1
>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     projection={'seq': True, '_id': False},
...     upsert=True,
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'seq': 1}

If multiple documents match filter, a sort can be applied.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({'done': True}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'_id': 665, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 26}}
{u'_id': 701, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 17}}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_update(
...     {'done': True},
...     {'$set': {'final': True}},
...     sort=[('_id', pymongo.DESCENDING)])
{u'_id': 701, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 17}}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to update.
  • update: The update operations to apply.
  • projection (optional): A list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a dict to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is updated.
  • upsert (optional): When True, inserts a new document if no document matches the query. Defaults to False.
  • return_document: If ReturnDocument.BEFORE (the default), returns the original document before it was updated, or None if no document matches. If ReturnDocument.AFTER, returns the updated or inserted document.
  • array_filters (optional): A list of filters specifying which array elements an update should apply. Requires MongoDB 3.6+.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

Changed in version 3.6: Added the array_filters and session options.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Respects write concern.

Warning

Starting in PyMongo 3.2, this command uses the WriteConcern of this Collection when connected to MongoDB >= 3.2. Note that using an elevated write concern with this command may be slower compared to using the default write concern.

New in version 3.0.

count(filter=None, session=None, **kwargs)

Get the number of documents in this collection.

All optional count parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include:

  • hint (string or list of tuples): The index to use. Specify either the index name as a string or the index specification as a list of tuples (e.g. [(‘a’, pymongo.ASCENDING), (‘b’, pymongo.ASCENDING)]).
  • limit (int): The maximum number of documents to count.
  • skip (int): The number of matching documents to skip before returning results.
  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the count command to run, in milliseconds.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.

The count() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): A query document that selects which documents to count in the collection.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Support the collation option.

distinct(key, filter=None, session=None, **kwargs)

Get a list of distinct values for key among all documents in this collection.

Raises TypeError if key is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3).

All optional distinct parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include:

  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the count command to run, in milliseconds.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.

The distinct() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • key: name of the field for which we want to get the distinct values
  • filter (optional): A query document that specifies the documents from which to retrieve the distinct values.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Support the collation option.

create_index(keys, session=None, **kwargs)

Creates an index on this collection.

Takes either a single key or a list of (key, direction) pairs. The key(s) must be an instance of basestring (str in python 3), and the direction(s) must be one of (ASCENDING, DESCENDING, GEO2D, GEOHAYSTACK, GEOSPHERE, HASHED, TEXT).

To create a single key ascending index on the key 'mike' we just use a string argument:

>>> my_collection.create_index("mike")

For a compound index on 'mike' descending and 'eliot' ascending we need to use a list of tuples:

>>> my_collection.create_index([("mike", pymongo.DESCENDING),
...                             ("eliot", pymongo.ASCENDING)])

All optional index creation parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. For example:

>>> my_collection.create_index([("mike", pymongo.DESCENDING)],
...                            background=True)

Valid options include, but are not limited to:

  • name: custom name to use for this index - if none is given, a name will be generated.
  • unique: if True creates a uniqueness constraint on the index.
  • background: if True this index should be created in the background.
  • sparse: if True, omit from the index any documents that lack the indexed field.
  • bucketSize: for use with geoHaystack indexes. Number of documents to group together within a certain proximity to a given longitude and latitude.
  • min: minimum value for keys in a GEO2D index.
  • max: maximum value for keys in a GEO2D index.
  • expireAfterSeconds: <int> Used to create an expiring (TTL) collection. MongoDB will automatically delete documents from this collection after <int> seconds. The indexed field must be a UTC datetime or the data will not expire.
  • partialFilterExpression: A document that specifies a filter for a partial index.
  • collation (optional): An instance of Collation. This option is only supported on MongoDB 3.4 and above.

See the MongoDB documentation for a full list of supported options by server version.

Warning

dropDups is not supported by MongoDB 3.0 or newer. The option is silently ignored by the server and unique index builds using the option will fail if a duplicate value is detected.

Note

partialFilterExpression requires server version >= 3.2

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Parameters:
  • keys: a single key or a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the index to create
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): any additional index creation options (see the above list) should be passed as keyword arguments

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter. Added support for passing maxTimeMS in kwargs.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4. Support the collation option.

Changed in version 3.2: Added partialFilterExpression to support partial indexes.

Changed in version 3.0: Renamed key_or_list to keys. Removed the cache_for option. create_index() no longer caches index names. Removed support for the drop_dups and bucket_size aliases.

See also

The MongoDB documentation on

indexes

create_indexes(indexes, session=None, **kwargs)

Create one or more indexes on this collection.

>>> from pymongo import IndexModel, ASCENDING, DESCENDING
>>> index1 = IndexModel([("hello", DESCENDING),
...                      ("world", ASCENDING)], name="hello_world")
>>> index2 = IndexModel([("goodbye", DESCENDING)])
>>> db.test.create_indexes([index1, index2])
["hello_world", "goodbye_-1"]
Parameters:
  • indexes: A list of IndexModel instances.
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): optional arguments to the createIndexes command (like maxTimeMS) can be passed as keyword arguments.

Note

create_indexes uses the createIndexes command introduced in MongoDB 2.6 and cannot be used with earlier versions.

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter. Added support for arbitrary keyword arguments.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

New in version 3.0.

drop_index(index_or_name, session=None, **kwargs)

Drops the specified index on this collection.

Can be used on non-existant collections or collections with no indexes. Raises OperationFailure on an error (e.g. trying to drop an index that does not exist). index_or_name can be either an index name (as returned by create_index), or an index specifier (as passed to create_index). An index specifier should be a list of (key, direction) pairs. Raises TypeError if index is not an instance of (str, unicode, list).

Warning

if a custom name was used on index creation (by passing the name parameter to create_index() or ensure_index()) the index must be dropped by name.

Parameters:
  • index_or_name: index (or name of index) to drop
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): optional arguments to the createIndexes command (like maxTimeMS) can be passed as keyword arguments.

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter. Added support for arbitrary keyword arguments.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

drop_indexes(session=None, **kwargs)

Drops all indexes on this collection.

Can be used on non-existant collections or collections with no indexes. Raises OperationFailure on an error.

Parameters:
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): optional arguments to the createIndexes command (like maxTimeMS) can be passed as keyword arguments.

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter. Added support for arbitrary keyword arguments.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

reindex(session=None, **kwargs)

Rebuilds all indexes on this collection.

Parameters:
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): optional arguments to the reIndex command (like maxTimeMS) can be passed as keyword arguments.

Warning

reindex blocks all other operations (indexes are built in the foreground) and will be slow for large collections.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter. Added support for arbitrary keyword arguments.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.5: We no longer apply this collection’s write concern to this operation. MongoDB 3.4 silently ignored the write concern. MongoDB 3.6+ returns an error if we include the write concern.

list_indexes(session=None)

Get a cursor over the index documents for this collection.

>>> for index in db.test.list_indexes():
...     print(index)
...
SON([(u'v', 1), (u'key', SON([(u'_id', 1)])),
     (u'name', u'_id_'), (u'ns', u'test.test')])
Parameters:
Returns:

An instance of CommandCursor.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

New in version 3.0.

index_information(session=None)

Get information on this collection’s indexes.

Returns a dictionary where the keys are index names (as returned by create_index()) and the values are dictionaries containing information about each index. The dictionary is guaranteed to contain at least a single key, "key" which is a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the index (as passed to create_index()). It will also contain any other metadata about the indexes, except for the "ns" and "name" keys, which are cleaned. Example output might look like this:

>>> db.test.create_index("x", unique=True)
u'x_1'
>>> db.test.index_information()
{u'_id_': {u'key': [(u'_id', 1)]},
 u'x_1': {u'unique': True, u'key': [(u'x', 1)]}}
Parameters:

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

drop(session=None)

Alias for drop_collection().

Parameters:

The following two calls are equivalent:

>>> db.foo.drop()
>>> db.drop_collection("foo")

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

rename(new_name, session=None, **kwargs)

Rename this collection.

If operating in auth mode, client must be authorized as an admin to perform this operation. Raises TypeError if new_name is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3). Raises InvalidName if new_name is not a valid collection name.

Parameters:
  • new_name: new name for this collection
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the rename command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method (i.e. dropTarget=True)

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

options(session=None)

Get the options set on this collection.

Returns a dictionary of options and their values - see create_collection() for more information on the possible options. Returns an empty dictionary if the collection has not been created yet.

Parameters:

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

map_reduce(map, reduce, out, full_response=False, session=None, **kwargs)

Perform a map/reduce operation on this collection.

If full_response is False (default) returns a Collection instance containing the results of the operation. Otherwise, returns the full response from the server to the map reduce command.

Parameters:
  • map: map function (as a JavaScript string)

  • reduce: reduce function (as a JavaScript string)

  • out: output collection name or out object (dict). See the map reduce command documentation for available options. Note: out options are order sensitive. SON can be used to specify multiple options. e.g. SON([(‘replace’, <collection name>), (‘db’, <database name>)])

  • full_response (optional): if True, return full response to this command - otherwise just return the result collection

  • session (optional): a ClientSession.

  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the map reduce command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method, e.g.:

    >>> db.test.map_reduce(map, reduce, "myresults", limit=2)
    

Note

The map_reduce() method does not obey the read_preference of this Collection. To run mapReduce on a secondary use the inline_map_reduce() method instead.

Note

The write_concern of this collection is automatically applied to this operation (if the output is not inline) when using MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Apply this collection’s write concern automatically to this operation when connected to MongoDB >= 3.4.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated arguments: merge_output and reduce_output

See also

The MongoDB documentation on

mapreduce

inline_map_reduce(map, reduce, full_response=False, session=None, **kwargs)

Perform an inline map/reduce operation on this collection.

Perform the map/reduce operation on the server in RAM. A result collection is not created. The result set is returned as a list of documents.

If full_response is False (default) returns the result documents in a list. Otherwise, returns the full response from the server to the map reduce command.

The inline_map_reduce() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • map: map function (as a JavaScript string)

  • reduce: reduce function (as a JavaScript string)

  • full_response (optional): if True, return full response to this command - otherwise just return the result collection

  • session (optional): a ClientSession.

  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the map reduce command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method, e.g.:

    >>> db.test.inline_map_reduce(map, reduce, limit=2)
    

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

parallel_scan(num_cursors, session=None, **kwargs)

Scan this entire collection in parallel.

Returns a list of up to num_cursors cursors that can be iterated concurrently. As long as the collection is not modified during scanning, each document appears once in one of the cursors result sets.

For example, to process each document in a collection using some thread-safe process_document() function:

>>> def process_cursor(cursor):
...     for document in cursor:
...     # Some thread-safe processing function:
...     process_document(document)
>>>
>>> # Get up to 4 cursors.
...
>>> cursors = collection.parallel_scan(4)
>>> threads = [
...     threading.Thread(target=process_cursor, args=(cursor,))
...     for cursor in cursors]
>>>
>>> for thread in threads:
...     thread.start()
>>>
>>> for thread in threads:
...     thread.join()
>>>
>>> # All documents have now been processed.

The parallel_scan() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • num_cursors: the number of cursors to return
  • session (optional): a ClientSession.
  • **kwargs: additional options for the parallelCollectionScan command can be passed as keyword arguments.

Note

Requires server version >= 2.5.5.

Changed in version 3.6: Added session parameter.

Changed in version 3.4: Added back support for arbitrary keyword arguments. MongoDB 3.4 adds support for maxTimeMS as an option to the parallelCollectionScan command.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed support for arbitrary keyword arguments, since the parallelCollectionScan command has no optional arguments.

initialize_unordered_bulk_op(bypass_document_validation=False)

DEPRECATED - Initialize an unordered batch of write operations.

Operations will be performed on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel. All operations will be attempted.

Parameters:
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.

Returns a BulkOperationBuilder instance.

See Unordered Bulk Write Operations for examples.

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.5: Deprecated. Use bulk_write() instead.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 2.7.

initialize_ordered_bulk_op(bypass_document_validation=False)

DEPRECATED - Initialize an ordered batch of write operations.

Operations will be performed on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining operations are aborted.

Parameters:
  • bypass_document_validation: (optional) If True, allows the write to opt-out of document level validation. Default is False.

Returns a BulkOperationBuilder instance.

See Ordered Bulk Write Operations for examples.

Note

bypass_document_validation requires server version >= 3.2

Changed in version 3.5: Deprecated. Use bulk_write() instead.

Changed in version 3.2: Added bypass_document_validation support

New in version 2.7.

group(key, condition, initial, reduce, finalize=None, **kwargs)

Perform a query similar to an SQL group by operation.

DEPRECATED - The group command was deprecated in MongoDB 3.4. The group() method is deprecated and will be removed in PyMongo 4.0. Use aggregate() with the $group stage or map_reduce() instead.

Changed in version 3.5: Deprecated the group method.

Changed in version 3.4: Added the collation option.

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated argument: command

insert(doc_or_docs, manipulate=True, check_keys=True, continue_on_error=False, **kwargs)

Insert a document(s) into this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use insert_one() or insert_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

save(to_save, manipulate=True, check_keys=True, **kwargs)

Save a document in this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use insert_one() or replace_one() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

update(spec, document, upsert=False, manipulate=False, multi=False, check_keys=True, **kwargs)

Update a document(s) in this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use replace_one(), update_one(), or update_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

remove(spec_or_id=None, multi=True, **kwargs)

Remove a document(s) from this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use delete_one() or delete_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

find_and_modify(query={}, update=None, upsert=False, sort=None, full_response=False, manipulate=False, **kwargs)

Update and return an object.

DEPRECATED - Use find_one_and_delete(), find_one_and_replace(), or find_one_and_update() instead.

ensure_index(key_or_list, cache_for=300, **kwargs)

DEPRECATED - Ensures that an index exists on this collection.

Changed in version 3.0: DEPRECATED